A large part of central heating systems in cities is inherited from the industrial era. It was a plant, its boilers produce high pressure steam for process needs, and even for their own power. Steam your working out, and it allowed into the district heating system surrounding the camp, or even an entire city. In cities without a centralized boiler industry often worked on coal, it happened at the local: it is more convenient to burn where there are driveways, tall chimneys and staff stokers.
Now differently. Boilers – and municipal and factory; even if the plant is stopped, and the houses were the main customers of heat – transferred the majority of the gas. That is, we are centrally very convenient, easily transportable and adjustable in the combustion process, it is very environmentally friendly fuel in the central boiler house. Then hot water is delivered to homes, were scattered on the risers and batteries.
Cons here a lot. On the way to the house of the heat is lost even in well-insulated pipes. It is difficult to adjust the load: the combustion gas is adjusted easier than the burning of brown coal, but a large inertia of apartment buildings heating system, it is difficult to ensure that somewhere in the apartment was not cold, and someone plowed the heat transoms.
Therefore, there is a desire to take advantage of a simple and convenient solution: to deliver the flat low-pressure gas (it is already going to the plate, and then back to the column) and burn it on the spot. No loss of on-site generation of heat (boiler heats the apartment scattering) and transport; easy and convenient to adjust; just count the cost: glanced at the counter, and everything is clear. Existing communication is quite provide.
Of course, there are technical limitations. First of all, the low-pressure gas pipelines, to scatter to their homes, they were not designed for the simultaneous operation of all columns. In continuous mode heating boiler will generate 6 kW – enough to heat two-bedroom Khrushchev. But it is in continuous operation, and resolutely all the people go to the stand-alone boilers, the gas may not be enough. The second problem – the removal of the products of combustion. Pipes designed for 19 kW for an apartment with inclusions of short columns, and can not cope with 6 kW for an apartment in continuous operation.
But, imagine that all the technical problems have been solved. Project organization, has accumulated a significant experience connections autonomous boilers, provides you meet all the standards and requirements of the project. Gas suppliers is ready to sign a contract with you for the supply of gas for heating and maintenance of heating appliances. is that enough? As a rule, no. I wish to go to the individual boiler will face two sets of problems, some motivated by self-interest, and other norms of the joint property.
So, what dictates the self-interest? The fact that each tenant consuming district heating services, generates stable cash flow, which is the foundation of any business. Let this modest stream, but these streams, merging together, form a powerful river that is home to managing companies and organization. Naturally, the owners and managers of the breast stand for their interests, sometimes to their side stand and municipal administrations.
As a rule, their argument is based on the Federal Law “On Heat Supply”, Chapter 4, paragraph 15 of Article 14. “Connecting the (technological connection) to the heating system”, which states: “It is forbidden to transfer to domestic heating in apartment buildings with individual room heat sources, the list of which is determined by the rules of connection (grid connection) to the heating system, approved by the Government, if implemented in the proper order of connection (grid connection) to the heating systems of apartment buildings, with the exception of cases determined by heating scheme.”
However, there is a general rule of the Constitution, enshrined in Article 2: “Man, his rights and freedoms are the supreme value. The recognition, observance and protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen – the duty of the state. ” That is, the system of law in our country to protect the rights of citizens, including the right to exploit their own property as they are comfortable.
But there is another side to the problem. The tenant who signed up for individual heating boiler heats only his apartment. And there is still porches, attic space, a heat treatment which is extremely important for proper operation of the citizens. It turns out that the boiler tenants paying their pay, but no owner of the boiler? This is a real problem. But it it was resolved amicably before the occurrence and aggravation by using a known since the days of Rome the concept of servitude. Voluntary servitude assumed the owners of apartments, setting the boiler, taking on the obligation to pay its part of the heating costs of public spaces and confirming its agreement.
On this basis, the court decided to entrust the administration of the municipality the obligation to agree reorganization of property in connection with the transition to individual heating using heat source. In other words, the Court defended the right of citizens to operate their homes in the most convenient way, without prejudice to the rights of other citizens, and that is the norm of human society. Very interesting and useful example!